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In addition, we know of no work linking parasites, urbanization, and stress. Among the many means of assessing stress in animals, oxidative stress has emerged in recent years as an under-studied component of the stress response system of wild animals , including in relation to urbanization . Urban pollution elevates oxidative stress in humans  and birds . Nutritional shifts in urban environments may lead to changes in dietary antioxidant availability and thus the capacity to counteract free-radical damage. For example, Isaksson and Andersson  showed that dietary carotenoid concentration was significantly lower in the urban caterpillars that constitute an important component of the diet of great tits (Parus major). Finally, it is possible that elevated parasitism (and/or associated immune system activation) may increase oxidative stress in urban animals .
One of the factors that can strongly affects immuno-competence in free-living organisms is the levels of oxidative stress. There is now a large body of correlational and experimental evidence in vertebrates showing an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species associated with pathogen-induced inflammation . In addition, activation of the inflammatory response can deplete antioxidants and expose the host to increased risk of oxidative stress . In our study, the levels of oxidative damage in plasma were not associated with the degree of urbanization or viral/coccidial infections. However, consistent with our results, Isaksson et al. failed to find significant differences in lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS) or in the levels of antioxidant enzymes activity in lung between urban and rural great tits (Parus major) in Sweden. Isaksson et al. did find though that urban great tits had a higher plasma non-enzymatic total antioxidant activity compared to rural birds. Altogether, these results suggest that urban animals can use antioxidants to protect their tissues from urban-derived oxidative stress. These results also point out the need to use several measure of antioxidant capacity or oxidative stress/damage in order to comprehensively understand urban impacts on avian oxidative physiology.
Birds have long been known to line their nests with vegetation rich in compounds that drive away parasites. Chemicals in tobacco leaves are known to repel arthropods such as parasitic mites, so Monserrat Suárez-Rodríguez, an ecologist at the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City, and her colleagues wondered whether city birds were using cigarette butts in the same way.
Free-roaming domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) pose major conservation and public health risks worldwide. To better understand the threat of domestic dogs to wildlife and people and add to the growing literature on free-roaming dog ecology, a study was conducted to estimate the dog population in Tulúm, México. A modified mark-recapture technique and program MARK were used to obtain dog population estimates along six different transects dividing the city. Population estimates ranged from 19.75 dogs in one transect to 101.841 dogs in another, with 150 total dogs identified throughout the study and an estimated minimum population density of 48.57 dogs/km2. Fecal samples were also opportunistically collected for parasite identification through fecal flotation analysis using the McMaster technique. Out of 25 samples collected, 19 tested positive for gastrointestinal parasites with the most common species found being Ancylostoma caninum, followed by Toxocara canis, Dipylidium caninum, and Cystoisospora spp. Parasite loads ranged from 50 to 10,700 ova per gram of feces. The large population of free-roaming dogs and the prevalence of three zoonotic parasites highlight the importance of understanding free-roaming dog ecology and educating the public on the health risks free-roaming dogs pose. Los perros callejeros (Canis lupus familiaris) representan un gran riesgo para la conservación de animales y la salud pública mundialmente. Para comprender mejor la amenaza que significan los perros domésticos para la fauna silvestre y los humanos y aportar a la creciente bibliografía sobre la ecología de los perros callejeros, se realizó una investigación para estimar la población de los perros en Tulúm, México. Se utilizó una técnica modificada de marcado y recaptura junto con el programa MARK para estimar la población canina en seis transectos de la ciudad. Los estimados varían desde 19.75 perros en un transecto hasta 101,841 en otro, con un total de 150 perros identificados en el transcurso de la investigación y una densidad mínima estimada de 48,57 perros/km2. Además, se hizo una recolección oportunista de muestras de heces para la identificación de parásitos por medio del análisis de flotacíon fecal, con el método McMaster. De las 25 muestras recolectadas, 19 resultaron positivas para parásitos gastrointestinales, de las cuales las especies más comunes fueron Ancylostomoa caninum, seguida por Toxocara canis, Dipylidium caninum, y Cystoisospora spp. Las cargas parasitarias variaron desde 50 hasta 10.700 óvulos por gramo de heces. La alta población de perros callejeros y la prevalencia de tres enfermedades zoonóticas resaltan la importancia de entender la ecología de los perros callejeros y educar al público sobre los riesgos que significan los perros callejeros para la salud.
Citation: Lyons MA, Malhotra R, Thompson CW (2022) Investigating the free-roaming dog population and gastrointestinal parasite diversity in Tulúm, México. PLoS ONE 17(10): e0276880.
In addition to wildlife, free-roaming dogs pose a similar threat to human health through disease transmission. Dogs and humans share over 60 parasite species, including Giardia, hookworms, and tapeworms, meaning dogs could play a role in infecting humans with these parasites . The close proximity in which dogs and humans live creates an ideal situation for parasite transmission from dogs to people [20,21]. In addition to being involved in parasite transmission, dogs can spread numerous viruses and bacteria to humans, including rabies, noroviruses, and Salmonella species . For example, Jimenez-Coello et al.  found that free-roaming dog populations located in Chiapas, México, serve as a reservoir for several pathogens, including Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. An additional study analyzing scat found in public parks throughout Campeche, México, found a high prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum, a zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite . While these studies are important, more studies like these are still needed to better understand the prevalence of free-roaming dog parasites throughout México and the world, to determine the factors impacting parasite prevalence, and to identify populations at risk for zoonotic infections. Additionally, given that dog population size can be used as a baseline to evaluate the threat of zoonotic infection, more studies that look at population size in conjunction with parasite prevalence are important.
The goal of this study is to estimate the dog population in Tulúm, México, and understand the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites from fecal samples found in the city, with special interest in how the free-roaming dog population and parasite community varies throughout the city. We hypothesize that the free-roaming dog population will be higher in areas outside of centers of local tourism. Tulúm is one of the most highly visited cities in México because of the adjacent Zonas Arquelógica de Tulúm, which receives nearly one million visitors annually (Secretaría de Turismo, México). Additionally, we hypothesize that gastrointestinal parasite prevalence will be higher in areas with greater dog densities. When controlling for differences in dog densities, we also hypothesize that parasite prevalence will be higher in lower income areas due to lower use of de-worming medication and in areas closer to forests due to increased contact with wildlife. 041b061a72